The Kahuzi Biega National Park was created to protect the Eastern Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) which are endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo.
It is one of the three important protected areas for the conservation of the biodiversity of the “Albertine Rift” with 136 species of large mammals (including 15 endemic to the Albertine Rift), 335 species of birds including 29 endemics, 69 species of reptiles including 7 endemics , 44 amphibians including 13 endemic, 1171 plant species including 218 endemic (Hall et al., 1997; Plumptre et al., 2003).
The PNKB has three charismatic species among the large mammals: the Gorilla, the Chimpanzee and the Elephant. But the Park is also home to the forest buffalo, the leopard or even the bongo, the sitatunga and the forest buffalo. In the 1990s, 86% of Eastern Lowland Gorilla populations occupied PNKB (Plumptre et al. 2010).
This gorilla population has fluctuated over the last decades, especially in the high altitude part where regular inventories are conducted (Omari 2000, Liengola et al. 2004, Amsini et al. 2008, Plumptre et al. 2010). In the eastern part of the Park, 223 gorillas were counted in 1979 (14 families and 5 solitary males), 258 individuals (25 groups with 9 solitary males) counted in 1990 and this figure remained stationary until 1996. However, the A biological inventory carried out in the high altitude part of the Park in February 2001 revealed the presence of 130 individuals. The 2010 inventories counted 181 individuals divided into 17 groups compared to 168 in 2004 with 15 groups (Plumptre et al. 2010). On the Park’s biodiversity list are also 14 other species of primates including Cercopithecus sp, Colobus spp, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii.